acts_as_state_machine for Dummies, part I

I recently applied this great plugin a few times to tackle different tasks and would like to share with you the joys of thinking in state machines!

Disclaimer: This installment is ‘just’ an intro to the topic (a teaser if you like), it doesn’t contain actual instructions or code on how to use acts_as_state_machine – that comes in part II. Though the original intent was to write up a small tutorial with some example code, I started with an intro and the article grew so long that I decided to split it up – so stay tuned for part deux!

State what…?!?

A finite state machine (FSM for short) a.k.a. finite state automaton (FSA) is a 5-tuple (Σ,S,s0,δ,F)… OK, just kidding. I doubt too much people are interested in the rigorous definition of the FSM (for the rest, here it is), so let’s see a more down-to earth description.

According to wikipedia, Finite state machine is “_a model of behavior composed of a finite number of states, transitions between those states, and actions_”. Somewhat better than those gammas and sigmas and stuff but if you are not the abstract thinker type, it might take some time to wrap your brain around it. I believe a good example can help here!

Everybody knows and loves regular expressions – but probably it’s not that wide known fact that regular expression matching can be solved with an FSM (and in fact, a lot of implementations are using some kind of FSM on steroids). So let’s see a simple example. Suppose we would like to match a string against the following, simple regexp:


First we have to construct the FSM, which will be fed with the string we would like to match. An FSM for the above regular expression might look like this:


String matching against this FSM is basically answering the question ‘starting from the initial state, can we reach the finish after feeding the FSM the whole string?’. Pretty easy – the only thing we have to define is ‘feeding’.

So let’s take the string ‘abbbcbbb’ as an example and feed the FSM! The process looks like this:

  1. we are in q0, the initial state (where the ‘start’ label is). Starting to consume the string
  2. we receive the first character, it’s an ‘a‘. We have an ‘a‘ arrow to state q1, so we make a transition there
  3. we receive the next character, ‘b‘. We have two b-arrows: to q1 and q2. We choose to go to q1 (in fact, staying in q1) – remember, the question is whether we _can_ reach the finish, not whether all roads lead to the finish – so the choice is ours!
  4. identical to the above
  5. after the two above steps, we are still in q1. We still get a ‘b‘ but this time we decide to move to q2.
  6. we are in q2 and the input is ‘c‘. We have no analysis-paralysis here since the only thing we can do is to move to q4 – so let’s do that!
  7. Whoa! We reached the finish line! (q4 is one of the terminal states). However, we didn’t consume the whole string yet, so we can’t yet tell whether the regexp matches or not.
  8. So we eat the rest of the string (the ‘how’ is left as an exercise to the reader) and return ‘match!’

Let’s see a very simple non-matching example on the string ‘abac’

  1. in q0
  2. got an ‘a‘, move to q1
  3. in q1, got a ‘b‘, move to q2
  4. in q2, got an ‘a‘, move to q3 – we reached the finish, but still have a character to consume
  5. in q3, got a ‘c‘… oops. We have no ‘c’ arrow from q3 so we are stuck. return ‘no match!’

Of course the real-life scenarios are much more complicated than the above one and sometimes FSMs are not enough (for example to my knowledge it’s not possible to tell about a number whether it is prime or not with a vanilla FSM – but a regexp doing just that has been floating around some time ago) but to illustrate the concept this example served fine.

This is cool and all but why should I care?!?

Well, yeah, you are obviously not going to model an FSM the next time you would like to match a regexp – that would be wheel-reinvention at it’s finest. However there are some practical scenarios where an FSM can come handy:

  • sometimes the logic flow is just too complicated to model – an if-forrest is rarely a good solution (on the flip side, don’t model an if-else with an FSM :-))
  • encapsulate complex logic flow into a pattern and not clutter your code with it.
  • you are in a stateless world – for example HTTP
  • asynchronous and/or distributed processing where you explicitly need to maintain your state and act upon it

Some real life examples of FSM usage in the Ruby/Rails world are why the lucky stiff’s Hpricot (using Ragel) or Rick Olson’s restful authentication plugin (using acts_as_state_machine)

The Next Episode

In the next installment I’d like to focus on the practical usage of the acts_as_state_machine plugin – I’ll attempt to create an asynchronous messaging system in a Rails app using it.